Update: May 2020
Replacement, the first of the 3Rs, is the use of methods that replace or avoid the use of animals in research and teaching.
The Australian Code for the care and use of animals for scientific purposes states:
1.18 Methods that replace or partially replace the use of animals must be investigated, considered and, where applicable, implemented.
1.19 Before the use of animals is considered, all existing information relevant to the proposed aim(s), including existing databases, must be examined. Replacement techniques that must be considered include the use of epidemiological data; physical and chemical analysis; computer, mathematical and inanimate synthetic models; simulations; in vitro systems; non-sentient organisms; cadavers; and clinical cases.
1.20 Opportunities to replace the use of animals must be kept under review during the lifetime of a project. Where relevant and applicable, the outcome of this review must be implemented in current projects and taken into account in planning future projects.
- Medical Advances Without Animals Trust (MAWA)
- Fund for Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments (FRAME)
- John Hopkins University Centre for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT)
- NORINA (A Norwegian Inventory of Alternatives)
- National Toxicology Program (USA): Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM)
- National Library of Medicine (USA): Search engine for alternatives
- International Network for Humane Educationhttp://www.interniche.org/