Update: May 2020
In 1959 Russell and Burch published “The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique”. The principle outlined at the opening of the book is that “….the humanest possible treatment of experimental animals, far from being an obstacle, is actually a prerequisite for successful animal experiments.”
The authors proposed the principles of Replacement, Reduction and Refinement - most often referred to as the 3Rs.
The principles of the 3Rs are accepted internationally and provide a framework for ethical decision making in the use of animals in research and teaching.
- National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (UK)
- Norecopa (Norway): National consensus platform for advancement of the 3Rs
- Russell and Burch: The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique
Examples of the 3Rs implemented by research establishments operating in NSW are included in the annual Animal Use in Research Statistics Reports.